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Pneumatic conveying


Pneumatic conveying

Fundamentals - 2

3. General layout of a pneumatic conveying system

The pneumatic pressure conveying system consists of three main components
Generation and preparation of compressed air
Pressure sending vessel with material feeding attachmet,
Conveying pipes, receiving silo with dust extraction filter.

3.1 Compressed air generation and preparation
The compressed air required for pneumatic conveying can be sourced from an existing works air pressure line or generated by a separate compressor.

When sourcing the compressed air from a works pressure line (generally a working gauge pressure of 6 bar), it must be reduced to the required conveying pressure. Also, the required air volume must be adjusted. This is done by means of an air-pressure-reducing and volume-control station. When pressure reduction is employed there is an obvious direct energy loss. Air is compressed to 6 bar, prepared and then expanded to conveying pressure (e.g. 3 bar).

For direct generation of compressed air up to 1 bar an oil-free rotary piston compressor is used and for air pressure > 1 bar a screw compressor. The compressed air is then cooled to operating temperature (in most cases 30 C) either with a water cooler or an air-to-air cooler, depending on availability of space or customer requirement. The compressed air must be cooled for a number of reasons. First, special seals are not required with cooled air, and insulation of tanks and pipe lines is also dispensed with. Second, the conveyed material would be needlessly heated and, depending on the type of the product conveyed, possibly sustain damage. The most important reason for cooling the air, however, is that only with cooled air can a constant air volume be attained. Since the the air temperature rises simultaneously with increasing conveying pressure, the conveying air expands. Uncooled conveying air results in higher and irregular velocities of flow. This reduces output and increases wear.

Since condensation can develop during the cooling process we recommend installing a condensation arrester.

3.2 The pressure vessel and its equipment
On or two automatic shut-off valves are fitted to the inlet of the pressure tank. Each pressure tank is further fitted with a level indicator, a safety valve and a pressure relief cock.

Normally, each pressure tank is also fitted with an aspiration line. The displacement air can be fed into the conveying line via this aspiration line during the filling of the pressure tank. The pressure tank is further equipped with an aeration device.

A pressure sensor of the control monitors the conveying process by measuring and evaluating the conveying pressure.

The pressure vessel discharge gate is fitted with an control device. The feeding attachmet or Beckshulte's nozzle housing system is available in various designs depending on the nominal diameter of the conveying line and function.

3.3 The conveying lines and the receiving silo with
       dust extraction filter.

The path or the layout of the conveying pipes is important. The conveying pipes must only be laid vertically or horizontally.

The receiving silo or container is fitted with a full indicator and with a dust extraction filter which is pneumatically cleaned (residual dust content > 1.0 mg/m³). If hazardous materials are conveyed, a fine filter stage must be installed (residual dust content > 0.01 mg/m³)

The conveying pipe leads into a Beckschulte impact head system.The silo must be fitted with at least one mechanical safety device for controlling excess and low pressure. An additional pressure switch to monitor the pressure electrically is recommended.



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Setting of pressure values in the visualization,
CZ - Teplice.

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Pressure characteristics at the end of conveying,
CZ - Teplice

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Technical changes and errors excepted. 2001 Beckschulte Verfahrenstechnik GmbH